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Enfants inattentifs? Oui mais pourquoi?

Posted on February 8, 2015 at 10:25 AM



En tant qu'humain, c'est tout naturellement que nous cherchons un rythme unique et structurant, que ce soit (dans la petite enfance) les battements de coeur de notre mère, le rythme de son pas, un échange de voix ou les sons de la nature, ou encore (plus tard) le rythme des mots alors que nous lisons, pensons ou écrivons, ou bien notre propre rythme dans nos activités quotidiennes. A tout moment, nos sens sont "bombardés" de centres de focalisations possibles. Nous pouvons ensuite commencer à apprendre efficacement quand nous entrons en résonnance avec un seul objet distinct et ne faisons plus attention aux distractions. Cette dynamique est le point crucial d'un système naturel subtil: le processus d'apprentissage.


Comment focalisons-nous notre propre attention? L'attention est-elle surtout une part de survie ou peut-elle tout simplement apparaître naturellement?


En fait, les deux types d'attention existent.


Dans la petite enfance nous apprenons à faire attention de deux manières fondamentales :

  1. L'attention avec un but et
  2. L'attention réactive
L'attention avec un but est un état qui apparaît quand nous sommes dans un état d'équilibre - détendus dans l'instant en nous contentant simplement d'"être". Quand nous atteignons cet état, tout notre attention est dirigée vers quelque chose qui nous attire, nous motive et nous nourrit. A ce stade, tout notre système sensoriel est engagé dans le processus d'apprentissage.

L'attention réactive est un état qui manifeste le fait d'"essayer" et un comportement plein d'effort. Nous atteignons cet état dans le stress, par réaction de fuite ou de lutte à tout stimulus qui nous fait perdre l'équilibre et dont la seule envie est de nous éloigner de ce qui nous effraie ou nous irrite.

Tandis que nous explorons notre monde, des stimuli intenses et inhabituels (comme de grands bruits ou des lumières éblouissantes), tout comme l'absence de stimulus peuvent nous distraire d'une attention avec un but.

L'attention réactive qui provient de la peur, du stress ou d'une distraction est en fait une recherche de sécurité (tout simplement!). Elle est stimulée par le tronc cérébral qui nous indique qu'il y a un "danger" ailleurs et que ce danger-là est bien plus important. Et tant que nous ne nous sentons pas en sécurité dans l'espace où nous nous trouvons, aucune forme d'intelligence rationnelle ne peut se développer. Ce qui affecte inévitablement notre apprentissage.

On parle parfois d'enfants "inattentifs" ou souffrant d'un "déficit d'attention". Le fait est que ces enfants en état de veille, sont attentifs à quelque chose de plus important pour eux à ce moment précis (danger!). Ils apprennent alors sous stress et dans l'effort, car pour apprendre dans un but de survie, ils doivent écarter leur attention de ce qui les intéresse réellement. Ils évoluent alors dans un état de lutte ou de fuite qui les oblige à se concentrer à l'extrème sur ce qu'un autre a décidé être important pour eux.


Comme vous pouvez le voir, la différence entre l'apprentissage basé sur la survie et l'apprentissage naturel et créatif est grande.


La manière dont nous regardons les mots, nous écrivons, nous bougeons et nous nous écoutons penser alors que nous lisons peut instaurer en nous un rythme aisé et plaisant ou au contraire discordant et stressant - et il y a un temps et un lieu pour chacun.


L'important est : sommes nous capable de revenir à nos propres rythmes ou sommes-nous en train de nous figer dans des schémas de stress?


Les activités prévues en Education Kinesthésique nous aident à restaurer un rythme d'apprentissage, naturel, joyeux et plus intégré. Nous découvrons comment centrer notre attention, équilibrer nos réactions réflexes et nous diriger volontairement vers un but bien précis.


Référence : Livre "Apprendre par le mouvement" - Paul Dennison

Categories: Education kinesthésique

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